Lung function and age play a very important role in establishing prognosis. However, more information is needed to make an individualized diagnosis and, therefore, multidimensional BODE index assessments are taken into account; weight (body mass index), degree of obstruction, shortness of breath (dyspnea) and exercise capacity.
Likewise, the frequency and severity of decompensations are a major factor in the evolution of the disease, both because they result in a worsening of the clinical situation and because of the risk during the period of exacerbation.
Irritant substances. Certain elements found in the air we breathe can cause irritation of the bronchial tree. It is almost impossible to avoid all irritating substances, but it is important to try to avoid environments contaminated with tobacco smoke, sprays, paints and solvents, dust, fumes and traffic pollution, pet hair, insecticides, hairsprays, air fresheners and strong perfumes.
Stages of COPD
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, or COPD, refers to the group of diseases that cause obstruction of air circulation and generate problems related to breathing. These diseases include emphysema, chronic bronchitis and, in some cases, asthma.
Chronic lower respiratory diseases, primarily COPD, were the third leading cause of death in the United States in 2011,2 Fifteen million Americans report that they have been diagnosed with COPD 3. More than 50% of adults with low lung function were unaware that they had COPD 4 ; so the actual number may be higher.
Avoidance of tobacco smoke, air pollutants in the home and workplace, and respiratory infections is critical to prevent the early development of COPD. A simple test called spirometry can be used to measure lung function and detect COPD. Anyone with respiratory problems can also be tested4.
Epoc grade 4 life prognosis
A question asked by many people with COPD is, “How long can I live with COPD?” There is no way to predict the life expectancy of people with COPD. But having this progressive lung disease does shorten the average life span. How long depends on a few factors, such as overall health, and whether you have other diseases, such as heart disease or diabetes.
Recently, researchers presented a way to assess the health of a person with COPD. The method combines the results of a lung function test with a person’s symptoms. These measurements are translated into labels that can help predict the life expectancy of people with COPD.
The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) created the new system. GOLD is an international group of lung health experts that periodically generates guidelines for physicians to use when caring for people with COPD and other lung diseases. Physicians use the GOLD system to assess people with COPD at “stages” of the disease. Staging is one way to measure the severity of COPD. It uses forced expiratory volume (FEV1), an assessment that determines how much air a person can forcibly exhale in one second, in order to categorize the severity of COPD.
How high should the saturation of a person with COPD be?
When speaking of causes of mortality worldwide, three subgroups are distinguished: communicable diseases (infectious); non-communicable diseases (such as COPD, myocardial infarction and oncological diseases); and diseases caused by accidents (wars, traffic accidents and suicides).
COPD, despite its heterogeneity, tends almost inexorably to worsen unless the cause is eliminated. The later the cause is eliminated, the more treatment is needed to alleviate its symptoms and prevent or delay complications. However, smoking cessation is the big decision and the key to treating COPD.
It is also associated with certain occupational diseases, such as byssinosis, caused by the inhalation of cotton dust, which was suffered by workers in the textile industry and is still highly prevalent in China.
COPD, which we have already said is heterogeneous, has two main expressions: it can be the result of inflammation of the bronchi and their bronchial branches and produce chronic bronchitis, or it can be the result of progressive destruction of the walls of the pulmonary alveoli, known as emphysema. Frequently we find a combination of both mechanisms.