Non-fulfillment of obligations pdf
It is convenient to make a terminological precision beforehand: is force majeure and fortuitous event the same thing? The Civil Code, throughout its articles, provides for force majeure in various articles, but it is in article 1105 where it is configured as a case of exemption from the obligation of compensation for non-performance in the event of non-performance, but not of contractual termination. This conclusion can be easily drawn from the literal wording of the said rule: “Except in the cases expressly mentioned in the law, and those in which the obligation so declares, no one shall be liable for those events which could not have been foreseen, or which, if foreseen, were unavoidable”.
It is widely considered that the concepts of force majeure and fortuitous event are synonymous, although there are those who differentiate between them, which will be explained later. Suffice it to say now that the Civil Code generally uses both expressions interchangeably, although in others it seems to differentiate between them.
Therefore, we must conclude that it is worth taking the time and making the investment in the drafting of a clause that regulates in detail what is to be understood by force majeure and fortuitous event, what consequences derive from the occurrence, such as the suspension for a maximum period after which the parties may terminate the contract by termination and the consequences thereof, such as the partial validity of what has already been executed, or on the contrary the lack of effects from the beginning with the return of the services when this is possible, the submission to mediation or arbitration for the assessment of the cases and the consequences for each party, and a long etcetera of provisions that offer security in cases which, as already mentioned, are not as exceptional as might be thought in principle. Recommendations
Example of non-performance of monetary obligations
Debit and liability – Whatever the source from which a credit relationship has arisen, the fact remains that the obligor must adapt its conduct to the dictates of the instrument, in order to satisfy the interest – patrimonial or not, but legitimate – of the obligee, who fundamentally expects this voluntary submission of the obligee and, therefore, the collaboration of the latter, determined by the stipulations of the instrument and the nature of the performance. This is the so-called “debit” or “primary debit”. What is owed by the obligor and no one else than him, which falls on one or several goods on the giving or delivery of which the obligation is projected.
Thus, the functional and dynamic definition of the obligation must include the two moments: debit and liability, always present, the latter only virtually as a real constraint for the timely performance.
The liability emerges in this way as an exposure of the debtor to energetic actions (to the patrimonial aggression) of the creditor, who makes effective the legality of the relationship and of its interest, providing with the judicial contest (substitution of the debtor or expropriation for cause of particular utility) to its satisfaction: in natura or in the pecuniary subrogation of the initial pressure, and to the reestablishment of its patrimonial and even personal state, broken by the undue conduct of the obligor.
¿Cuáles son las consecuencias del incumplimiento de un contrato?
La dispersión de remedios da cuenta del incumplimiento contractual como una cuestión normativa que se encuentra en los Códigos Civil y de Comercio de Colombia. En este trabajo se estudiará el concepto de incumplimiento contractual capaz de disponer un conjunto de remedios al acreedor para satisfacer sus intereses. El modelo propuesto por los autores, construido sobre la revisión de los instrumentos de soft law que constituyen el nuevo derecho de los contratos, ofrece un sistema unitario de remedios de aplicación común para los diferentes escenarios de incumplimiento contractual. Esta aproximación al modelo permite una nueva lectura e interpretación de las normas que regulan los supuestos de incumplimiento contractual en los códigos de derecho privado, aportando soluciones adecuadas en relación con el tráfico mercantil y desdibujando las perplejidades generadas por la regulación actual. También ofrece una conceptualización dogmática del incumplimiento contractual, no sólo como propuesta de modificación de las normas sino como aplicación directa a la resolución de conflictos contractuales.
Este artículo parte de la identificación de un problema normativo en los Códigos Civil y de Comercio de Colombia, que consiste en la presencia de un sistema fraccionado y disperso de medios de protección del acreedor ante situaciones constitutivas de incumplimiento contractual. Esto produce un efecto práctico complejo y no deseado, pues el afectado se enfrenta a la incertidumbre de un medio de tutela, que tienda a la satisfacción de su interés lesionado. Este hecho consiste en la ausencia de un concepto general de incumplimiento y, por ende, de una estructura unitaria de medios de protección para el acreedor1.
Consequences of non-performance of obligations civil code
It is not disputed that there are three requirements for the occurrence of an act of God: an event alien to the obligor (1); unforeseeable (2); and irresistible in itself and in its consequences. On the other hand, there is a debate as to how to understand the unforeseeability and irresistibility of the external event.
For some -the most traditional position in Chile- both unpredictability and irresistibility must be absolute, i.e., predictable with respect to any person. For others, unforeseeability and irresistibility must be considered paying attention to the contract, that is, to the risk plausibly assumed by the parties when contracting. In order to define whether unforeseeability and irresistibility are present, attention must be paid, first and foremost, to the contract.
In this way, the notion of fortuitous event is relativized. The same event may be a fortuitous event with respect to some parties, but not with respect to others. Thus, the same event may constitute a fortuitous event for an SME, but not for a large company.