There, at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), different views on human rights, population, sexual and reproductive health, gender equality and sustainable development coalesced into a major global consensus, which placed individual dignity and human rights, including the right to plan one’s own family, at the center of development.
In November 2019, more than 8,000 delegates, representing governments, advocates, health organizations, women and youth activists and others, from more than 170 countries gathered in Kenya for the Nairobi Summit on ICPD.25 There, they made some 1,300 clear and concrete commitments to advance ICPD goals and ensure the rights and dignity of all.
The ICPD Programme of Action, adopted in 1994 by 179 Member States, sets out a forward-looking plan to promote human well-being that places the human rights of people, rather than demographic goals, at the center of the global development agenda.
– Having regard to the Nairobi Declaration on ICPD25: Taking the Pledge Forward, of 1 November 2019, and the national and partner commitments and collaborative actions announced at the Nairobi Summit,
– having regard to the Ottawa Statement of Commitment adopted at the 7th International Parliamentarians’ Conference on ICPD Implementation, which took place on 22-23 October 2018 in Ottawa, Canada,
– having regard to the report of the UN Secretary-General of 5 October 1999 on the twenty-first special session of the General Assembly for the overall review and appraisal of the implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action (five-year review of progress in the implementation of the Programme of Action),
– having regard to the report of the Secretary-General of the United Nations entitled “Framework for action to follow up the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development beyond 2014” (Global Report on ICPD beyond 2014),
Fourth World Conference on Women Beijing 1995 pdf
The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, UNFPA, renamed the United Nations Population Fund in 1987, although it retained the acronym) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that began sponsoring population policy programs in 1967. It is directed by Natalia Kanem. It is one of the agencies under the United Nations General Assembly and is headquartered in New York.
It is the leading international institution in reproductive health programs, mainly birth control, family planning and the fight against sexually transmitted diseases, especially in underdeveloped countries. It works in more than 140 countries on policies to support women and youth.
International Conference on Population and Development 1999
The Fourth United Nations Conference on Women, held in Beijing in 1995, placed reproductive health in the context of sexual and reproductive rights and within the general framework of human rights. In this regard, the Platform for Action adopted at that Conference recognized that “the human rights of women include their rights to have control over and decide freely and responsibly on matters related to their sexuality, including sexual and reproductive health, free of coercion, discrimination and violence” (IPPF, 1998).
More recently, at the ICPD+5 Forum, held in The Hague in February 1999, NGOs, international organizations and governments reviewed progress in implementing the Cairo Conference Plan of Action and set out new actions for the future. In addition to reaffirming reproductive health as a basic human right, they stressed the need to involve men in reproductive health issues and to inform and provide services to young people. The forum noted that developed countries have not allocated the material, human and institutional resources needed to implement the ICPD Program of Action. The latter established that two-thirds of the cost of reproductive health programs in developing countries would come from their own funds, and that the remaining third would be provided by the international community. Although they have increased their efforts in this area, they have not complied with what was agreed (El País, 1999:34).