Small river fish
Forests, and by extension forests, are a fundamental element for economic and social development, environmental protection and the maintenance of ecosystem services, with special incidence in rural areas. The exodus of the rural population to the cities is generating new challenges in areas that have been intensively managed by the population to obtain essential natural and food resources, and that in a few decades have become abandoned, with the threats and risks to their stability and diversity, and which translate into a greater sensitivity of the forest masses to forest fires, pests and diseases.
Global environmental problems, especially climate change and desertification, as well as the risks associated with them, exert additional pressure on natural resources and specifically on terrestrial biodiversity.
Research aimed at improving the understanding and functioning of ecosystems, their interaction with socio-economic systems, as well as the analysis of emerging problems, including the adaptation of species and ecosystems to climate change or the adaptation of invasive species, is a priority area.
Fish of the Peruvian highlands
For several centuries, mankind has designated areas restricting access and use of flora, fauna and other resources in order to maintain the original qualities of these sites. The reasons have been different, including economic (forest reserves), spiritual (religious sites), recreational (hunting grounds and parks), etc.
With the leadership of some countries, the creation of protected areas spread throughout the world. However, in countries with little culture of nature and little budget, the effectiveness of this conservation tool was not the same.
Natural protected areas are the areas under the administration of the Comisión Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas (Conanp), among the most well known are the Parque Nacional Desierto de los Leones and the Reserva de la Biosfera de la Mariposa Monarca.
At least 22 states have decrees of protected areas at the state level under the administration of state government environmental secretariats or institutes. Some states have a State System of Natural Areas, such as Jalisco and Oaxaca. Some municipalities have also created municipal protected areas.
Patalo fish Magdalena River
However, the popoyote is considered an endangered species by the Mexican Official Standard (NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010), due to various factors including urban sprawl, deforestation, contamination of water bodies, fragmentation of its habitat, and especially the introduction of exotic species. In 2004, it had already lost 60% of its habitat.
According to researchers from El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), the presence of trout, bass, and carp reduces the growth of the popoyote, which is affected by parasites and even becomes easy prey. These species were introduced due to sport fishing, which led to their easy adaptation and excessive growth.
Other species that greatly affect the population of this endemic fish are the red crab (Procambarus clarkii) and the bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), both of which are predators of this fish.
The red crab is a species considered native exclusively to northeastern Mexico, which is why it was introduced to southern Mexico through poorly planned “projects” that were unsuccessful and affected the ecosystem, since this species has a high probability of adapting. This is a big problem for the Popoyote because the red crab feeds mainly on the eggs they produce, altering the growth of SCLC’s endemic fish populations.
Colombian freshwater fishes
It grows to over 3 m long and weighs up to 250 kg (beluga sturgeon exceeds 5 m and 600 kg). It has a slender body, a relatively rounded ventrolateral margin of the head, up to 18 rays on the caudal fin and teeth in 2 to 2.5 irregular rows.
This species practices oral incubation, and also its reproduction has adapted to the great fluctuations of its environment, since it lays its eggs between February and April, when the water level is low, and for this purpose it builds a nest about 50 cm wide and 15 cm deep, usually in sandy areas. In the flood season (when the water level rises), during the months of May to August, the eggs hatch, so they have more water to thrive.
In Bolivia, the introduction of the species has had negative impacts on the native ichthyofauna and, as a consequence, on subsistence fishing by local communities. However, in this same country it also generates economic benefits for fishermen engaged in commercial fishing, and for wholesale and retail traders.Together with different scientific organizations, the Bolivian government is examining the consequences of the paiche invasion in the country. In addition, the Bolivian government is also studying the consequences of the invasion of the paiche in Bolivia.