Figure 3. Loading positions considered by the slabs as critical tensile stresses. Based on the maximum tensile stress, at each loading position, the allowable steps for each condition (Nijk) is calculated based on the MEPDG fatigue equation (ARA 2007) (1)
Where: TTcracks50 = % total cracked slabs, 50% reliability: Tcracksi = % cracked slabs from the surface Tcrackss = % cracked slabs from below Reliability is determined with the same methodology as MEPDG (ARA 2007) and is presented below: (6)
The surface layer is called the wearing course and is the one in direct contact with traffic. The lower layers are called base (when there is only one) or base and sub-base when there are two. The natural soil is known as subgrade and is in charge of supporting the pavement.
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Minimum concrete slab thickness
The ICPA is a non-profit civil organization, created in 1940, whose objective is to obtain an efficient use of cement in its various applications, as well as the dissemination and promotion of good practices, new uses and technologies that improve both the quality of concrete and its productivity and competitiveness.
One of its main actions is technical assistance, which is channeled through its training activities, on-site advice, or in the attention of consultants who turn to the ICPA to solve their doubts either personally, by telephone or through its web page.
As time went by, it began to be observed that these types of pavements were very prone to develop failures in the joint area, and this was due to the fact that the use of longer slabs caused the joints to experience greater movements due to changes in temperature and humidity, affecting the transfer of loads and increasing the demands on the seals.
Thickness of a concrete floor
Asphalt deterioration can include alligator skin, potholes, rutting, spalling and subsidence. In cold climates surface water can freeze in cracks and voids in the asphalt, pressing on the surface and breaking it up. In warm climates the mix can heat up, flowing and generating tire tracks (rutting) and potholes.
It is much cheaper to maintain a road in good condition than to have to rebuild the entire road once it has deteriorated. This is why many U.S. state agencies would rather spend resources on keeping roads in good condition than rebuilding those that are in poorer condition.