For the analysis of the distribution of vertical compressive stresses, the wall has been divided longitudinally into two zones, the one in Figure 10 corresponding to those produced under the interior columns and Figure 11 to those produced under the end columns.
L2 being the largest of the spans contiguous to the column considered and “d” its dimension in the longitudinal direction of the wall, an amount of reinforcement must be uniformly distributed over the height H of the wall (or over a height L1, if L1 <H and L1 < L2).
Model adopted The connecting rod and tie-rod model adopted for the simultaneous study of longitudinal bending and the local effect of column loads in a basement wall represents the flow of forces within the structure, which has been simplified as a two-dimensional lattice, in which the resultants of compressions (connecting rods) and tractions in the reinforcement (tie-rods) are reproduced. To apply the model of connecting rods and tie rods to the case at hand, we have considered a central section with symmetry on both sides, thus not considering the case of the zone of the edge column, which for these purposes would not be representative, since, as mentioned in previous sections, the effect of the perpendicular wall would not be taken into account, which in terms of distribution of pressures in the ground and consequently of the distribution of stresses in the wall, would be far from reality. Figure 16 proposes a criterion for the application of the method in the case of the type wall studied, which should be reviewed for the study of walls with different characteristics, always bearing in mind the approximate nature of the procedure.
Political challenges after the fall of the Berlin Wall
At the beginning, the implementation of nationalization and planning of the economy in the GDR allowed for industrial development and recovery from the devastation left by the war, along with general access to work, education, health care and a more equal position for women. However, the level of development of the western part of the GDR – achieved thanks to the U.S. Marshall Plan (1948-61), with the introduction of the Soviet Union (1948-61) and the introduction of the Soviet Union in the West. (1948-61), with economic aid. The U.S. was superior.
In 1989, the question of Italian journalist Riccardo Ehrman, correspondent of the Ansa agency, prompted a reply from the spokesman of the communist government of the former GDR, Guenter Schabowski, which would precipitate the fall of the Berlin Wall: “From when can the Wall be crossed?”, to which the official replied “From right now”.
The agreed order was that permits would be issued from November 10, but a mistake by the spokesman was exploited by thousands of people who began to tear down the wall with sledgehammers and hammers.
What did the fall of the berlin wall mean?
Note: -The Construction Cost Index describes the monthly evolution of the cost of construction of buildings intended for housing, in accordance with the provisions of Law 13.728 of December 17, 1968. Decree 543/972 entrusts the Dirección General de Estadísticas y Censos (DGEyC), currently the Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE), with the preparation and publication of the aforementioned index.
The index does not include the value of land, professional fees, construction permit costs, real estate commissions, depreciation of equipment, benefits and general expenses of the construction company, value added tax (VAT) and social laws (contributions to the BPS).
The prices of the items involved in the calculation are surveyed by the INE (National Statistics Institute) on a monthly basis for the preparation of the I.C.C. (Construction Cost Index).
The fall of the berlin wall summary
The archipelago is a group of four islands (San Juanito, Maria Madre, Maria Magdalena and Maria Cleofas) located in the Pacific Ocean, approximately 132 km from San Blas Nayarit. There is no consensus on its discovery but it may have occurred in late 1526 or early 1527. In 1905, when Porfirio Díaz decreed the penal colony of the Islas Marías, the prison was built on María Madre Island.
In the beginning, the prisoners sent to this prison were those considered to be highly dangerous. Others, political prisoners, were sent to the island to serve their sentences because of their militancy and ideas contrary to the system. Among the best known prisoners was the writer José Revueltas, who was deported to the prison on two occasions, and whose harsh impressions are narrated in his novel “Los Muros de Agua” (The Walls of Water). But, besides the prison, what is behind the Muros de Agua?
The diversity of birds is also important, of which at least 100 species have been recorded. There are resident birds of which at least 12 are endemic, such as the yellow-headed parrot (Amazona oratrix tresmarie) and the maria island parula (Parula pitiayumi insularis). In addition, the islands are nesting sites for seabirds and resting places for migratory birds.